Mitochondrial superoxide is generated as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation. In an otherwise tightly coupled electron transport chain, approximately 1–3% of mitochondrial oxygen consumed is incompletely reduced; those “leaky” electrons can quickly interact with molecular oxygen to form superoxide anion, the predominant reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria.1–4 Increases in cellular superoxide production have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes-associated vascular injuries,5–7 as well as in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsonʼs, Alzheimerʼs, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).8–12 The assumption that mitochondria serve as the major intracellular source of ROS has been based largely on experiments with isolated mitochondria rather than direct measurements in living cells.The Celltechgen™ MitoStress Red Mitochondrial Superoxide Indicator is a novel fluorogenic dye for highly selective detection of superoxide in the mitochondria of live cells. MitoStress Red Mitochondrial Superoxide reagent is live-cell permeant and is rapidly and selectively targeted to the mitochondria. Once in the mitochondria, MitoStress Red Mitochondrial Superoxide Indicator reagent is oxidized by superoxide and exhibits red fluorescence. MitoStress Red Mitochondrial Superoxide Indicator reagent is readily oxidized by superoxide but not by other ROS- or reactive nitrogen species (RNS)–generating systems, and oxidation of the probe is prevented by superoxide dismutase. The oxidation product becomes highly fluorescent upon binding to nucleic acids. This reagent may enable researchers to distinguish artifacts of isolated mitochondrial preparations from direct measurements of superoxide generated in the mitochondria of live cells. It may also provide a valuable tool in the discovery of agents that modulate oxidative stress in various pathologies.
Molecular formula: C43H43N3IP
Upon receipt, the MitoStress Red Mitochondrial Superoxide Indicator reagent should be stored upright, desiccated, and protected from light at ≤–20˚C. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles. MitoSOX™ Red reagent is packaged with an oxygen scavenging pouch that will extend the shelf life of the product. After removing vials for use, seal the remaining vials into the pouch to preserve the activity of the reagent. Vials should be allowed to warm to room temperature before opening. When stored properly, components should be stable for at least 6 months. Note: MitoStress Red Mitochondrial Superoxide Indicator reagent is a derivative of ethidium bromide and should be treated with the appropriate caution.
50ug ; 5*50ug
Celltechgen provides high-quality reagents and materials for research use only. For proper handling of potentially hazardous chemicals, please request the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) provided for the product.